Embryo selection probably works, and may arrive soon. So we can imagine a world where we have 10,000 adults who are roughly twice as intelligent, happy and healthy (and so on) compared to the most fortunate humans today.
What would happen in that world?
(1) Evolutionary perspective: these (trans)humans would attain most positions of power. They would form fertile factions. Within a few generations, the “old model” humans would be a minority of the population.
(2) Religious perspective: these beings would be so wise and benevolent that they would moderate their own power. They would make decisions in the interests of the social welfare function, taking care to minimise their violations of deontological side-constraints.
We should expect something closer to (1) than (2). Such is the way of things.
How do we feel about the prospect of (1)? It’ll depend on the details, but broadly I think people today are happy with the idea of happier healthier and more intelligent humans inheriting the earth. We send our children to school.
Now: replace these transhumans with digital minds, which are made of sand instead of meat. Feels different, but do you endorse that feeling?
Atoms are atoms.1